How to clean water from impurities and substances dissolved in it

Our careless attitude to the composition of drinking water causes internal organs to be the only barrier protecting against serious diseases. But the human body is not able to cope with all the harmful substances that can be detected in water. Like any "equipment" that is subjected to heavy loads, this natural filter will fail sooner or later.

Preparation and precautions

Improper cleaning procedures can degrade water quality. You can avoid such situations by following a few rules.

IMPORTANT! When choosing a purification method or a combination of them, it is necessary to investigate the composition of the water. The cleaning method is determined by the type of pollution and its concentration.

It is necessary to take into account the side effects of the chosen methods and not to neglect the measures that neutralize their action. Cleaning technique should be carried out in strict accordance with the instructions.

If special equipment is used to normalize quality, before installing it, you should be familiar with the features of operation - the requirements for care, replacement of replacement parts, and the specifics of the operating mode.

Types of water pollutants

Water can contain up to 4,000 variants of impurities, detrimental to quality. Among the most common types of water pollution include the following types.

Coarse impurities

Represent a suspension of large, insoluble particles of rust, sand, silt, clay. In tap water, rust can most often be found due to old water pipes. Such water is unsuitable for food and clogs pipelines and mixers, leading to breakdowns of plumbing equipment.

ATTENTION! The presence of this type of contamination can be determined visually - the water is cloudy, the suspensions are separated by dirty sediment or accumulate on the surface.

Chlorine and its compounds

Chlorine is added to tap water as a disinfectant. This substance can enhance the allergic reaction, can cause irritation of the mucous membranes and skin, negatively affects the metabolism, the immune system, intestinal microflora. It can provoke inflammation of the kidneys and cancer.

ATTENTION! Water with a high concentration of chlorine can be distinguished by a specific smell.

Calcium and magnesium salts

The high salt content makes the water "hard". Consumption of this fluid increases the risk of kidney stones, and a large amount of magnesium adversely affects the nervous system. Hard water is not the best way affects the condition of hair and skin.

ATTENTION! Salts are deposited white on the dishes and pipes, causing corrosion of plumbing components and household appliances.

Iron

For one liter of water, the iron content is 0.1-0.3 mg. Excess of this indicator makes water toxic. The nervous, immune, reproductive and digestive systems suffer. It affects the liver, kidneys and pancreas. The processes of blood formation and metabolism worsen, allergic reactions can occur. Disrupted the process of withdrawal of toxins.

ATTENTION! The taste of the "glandular" water is unpleasant, the shade is yellow, the smell is metallic. But a dangerous concentration of iron may be invisible to the senses.

Manganese

Manganese content in drinking water should be less than 0.1. Manganese can cause nerve disorders, diseases of the hematopoietic and bone systems. A high concentration of the substance reduces intellectual abilities, and in pregnant women can cause abnormalities in the mental development of the fetus.

ATTENTION! Water retains transparency, but the excess manganese can be seen by the appearance of black spots on plumbing and dishes that occur over time.

Heavy metals

Lead, chromium, zinc, cadmium, nickel, mercury are toxic metals. They can provoke diseases of the bone marrow, atherosclerosis, hypertension. Lead is most likely to be found in tap water. Gaskets from this metal are used in old pipelines because of their durability.

Nitrates

Under this name, we understand a number of substances - nitrates, pesticides, herbicides, nitrites, which lead to a lack of oxygen in the tissues of the body. Fall into the water as a result of agricultural activities.

Microorganisms

Water can contain both bacteria and viruses. They cause intestinal disorders, stomach ailments, the occurrence of hepatitis, polio and other diseases.

Table: Ways to combat water pollution

PollutantFolk method of purificationFilters to remove contamination
Coarse impurities

  • Upholding

  • Straining
Mechanical cleaning
Chlorine

  • Upholding

  • Boiling

  • Charcoal cleaning

  • Shungite cleansing

  • Silicon Purification

  • Sorption

  • Electrochemical Aeration

  • Air aeration
Calcium and magnesium salts

  • Boiling

  • Frost

  • Upholding

  • Reverse Osmosis

  • Ion exchange
Iron

  • Frost

  • Shungite cleansing

  • Silicon Purification

  • Quartz peeling

  • Electrochemical Aeration

  • Air aeration

  • Reverse Osmosis

  • Ion exchange

  • Ozone Cleaners

  • Biological
Manganese

  • Frost

  • Shungite cleansing

  • Quartz peeling

  • Electrochemical Aeration

  • Air aeration

  • Ion exchange
Heavy metals

  • Frost

  • Silicon Purification

  • Quartz peeling

  • Ion exchange + Sorption

  • Electrochemical Aeration

  • Air aeration
Nitrates

  • Silicon Purification

  • Quartz peeling

  • Sorption

  • Reverse Osmosis

  • Ion exchange
Microorganisms

  • Boiling

  • Frost

  • Silver or copper peeling

  • Shungite cleansing

  • Silicon Purification

  • Quartz peeling

  • Ozone Cleaners

  • Reverse Osmosis

  • Ultraviolet

Folk cleaning methods without filters

The need to clean and disinfect water, people have long recognized. To date, the human experience has gained a lot of effective cleaning methods at home.

Boiling

High temperature kills microorganisms, and calcium and magnesium salts in the solid sediment, which can be drained. In the process of boiling, volatile substances, such as chlorine, go away.

  1. Bring water to a boil.
  2. Boil for 15-25 minutes with the lid open.
  3. After to let stand.
  4. Drain, without touching the bottom layer with sediment.

Frost

Cleaning is performed by displacing the impurities from the water that crystallizes under the influence of low temperature. However, after a certain concentration of impurities is reached in unfrozen water, they will be incorporated into the structure of the ice lattice in the form of capsules. Therefore, it is important not to miss the moment when you can separate the clean water.

  1. Place the pot of water in the freezer.
  2. Leave for a few hours.
  3. When half the volume is frozen, the liquid residue is drained.
  4. Melt the remaining ice - this water can be used.

Upholding

The method allows to remove chlorine and some other volatile substances (for example, ammonia) due to evaporation, and also partially weed out salts that will fall to the bottom in the form of a solid precipitate.

  1. Pour water into a ceramic or glass container.
  2. Leave for 8 hours.
  3. During the first 2 hours, stir with a spoon: during this time chlorine will evaporate, stirring will speed up the process.
  4. Then do not touch the water for 6 hours. This time is required for the sedimentation of other impurities, so you can not mix.
  5. Water, trying not to shake up, pour into another dish, leaving about a quarter of the liquid at the bottom.
  6. Freeze or boil.

Activated carbon

Coal has the ability to absorb organic compounds and gases dissolved in water, in particular chlorine. There is a special coal for cleaning, but you can use pharmacy activated carbon tablets.

  1. Wrap coal tablets at the rate of 4 pieces per liter in gauze.
  2. Put on the bottom of the dish and pour water.
  3. Leave on for 6-8 hours.
  4. Water strain and boil.

Silver and copper

Copper and silver destroy harmful microflora in water. Silver does not allow bacteria to develop later (water treated with this metal can be stored for several months), but it can be eaten in food.

  • For cleaning with silver, you can put a silver spoon overnight.
  • To clean with copper, it is enough to hold the water for 4 hours in a copper bowl (but no more, in order to avoid metal poisoning).

Shungite

Schungite not only cleans from chlorine, nitrates, microorganisms, manganese and iron, but also fills with useful trace elements. One stone can be used for about six months, you only need to clear it from plaque.

Instructions: take 100 grams of shungite per 1 liter of water, place for 3 days, then drain the top layer without affecting the bottom.

Silicon

Silicon disinfects, precipitates iron, mercury and phosphorus compounds and neutralizes chlorine.

Black silicon is used, the life of which is unlimited (must be cleaned of plaque after each use).

  1. Rinse the silicon and put it on the bottom of a glass container with water (3 liters - 50 grams).
  2. Defend from 3 to 7 days in a dark place.
  3. Carefully, without stirring, drain the water, leaving 5 centimeters of the lower layer.

other methods

Popular practice are known several more ways:

  • Quartz. It is produced in the same way as shungite and silicon purification: water with quartz stones (200 g per 3 liters) must be infused for 3 days. Can be mixed with silicon. This mineral is able to clear heavy metals, chlorine, iron, manganese, aluminum, nitrates and pathogens.
  • Kitchen salt. A tablespoon of salt, diluted in two liters of water and infused for half an hour, clears off bacteria and heavy metal compounds. But this method can not be applied continuously.
  • Vegetable cleaners. Ripe rowan berries, juniper sprigs, bird cherry leaves, willow bark and onion peel have a bactericidal effect. To do this, any of the listed ingredients, pre-washed, put in water for 12 hours (except for mountain ash - it is enough for her three).
  • Wine. You can purify water from harmful microflora by mixing 2 parts of it with 1 part of wine and holding it for 15 minutes.
  • Medications. For the same purpose, iodine (3 drops per 1 liter), vinegar (1 teaspoon) and potassium permanganate (light pink solution) are used. After adding iodine and vinegar, water can be consumed after 2 hours.

Disadvantages of folk methods

Cleaning methodIneffectiveSide effects
Boiling

  • Not all bacteria can be destroyed by short boiling. For the destruction of certain species requires boiling water for 30-40 minutes, and the duration of boiling exacerbates the side effects.

  • Heavy metal compounds remain in the water.

  • Chlorine is converted to chloroform (an even more toxic compound).

  • Salt concentration increases due to the evaporation of the liquid fraction.

  • Reduced oxygen concentration in water.
Frost-Salts are also eliminated from the water.
Upholding

  • Heavy metal compounds remain.

  • Chlorine is not completely removed.
-
Charcoal cleaning

  • Does not possess disinfecting property.

  • Does not remove iron compounds and heavy metals.
-
Silver and copper cleansingDoes not eliminate inorganic impurities.Silver and copper - toxic metals, the method requires special care.

Special equipment for water purification

Technical progress has contributed to the development of high-quality water purification methods. At the moment, used equipment for cleansing involves:

  • Filters of different types;
  • Chemical effects on water;
  • Physical and chemical processes;
  • Physical processes;
  • Biological mechanisms.

The method of purification is determined by the type of impurities that must be removed.

Filtering systems

  • Mechanical filters. Used to remove large particles from water, such as rust, sand, silt and others. The filtering device is a liquid-permeable barrier that retains undissolved impurity particles. This is a system of several obstacles - from coarse filtering grids for coarse debris to fine-cleaning cartridges for particles no larger than 5 microns. Water is purified in several stages, due to this, the load on the cartridges is reduced.
  • Sorption filters. Can be used with mechanical filters. Remove impurities by absorbents, effective for chlorine and organic compounds. The role of the absorbing material is played by coconut coal (from the shell), its effectiveness is 4 times higher than that of charcoal.
  • Ozone cleaners (chemical cleaning). Designed to purify water from the impurities of metals and microorganisms (dispute resistant to chlorine). For work, the ozone property is used to release oxygen when decomposed in water, which oxidizes metallic impurities. Then they settle and can be removed.

Physical and chemical methods of action

  • Electrochemical aeration. Used to remove dissolved impurities that can be oxidized - iron, manganese, chlorine, hydrogen sulfide, heavy metal salts. First of all, they are used for purification from iron impurities - these filters are effective even at high concentrations, up to 30 mg per liter. Impurities are oxidized due to the appearance of free oxygen ions in water, the concentration of which increases when an electric current is passed through water. The oxidized substances are deposited on the filter.
  • Aerial aeration. They are used for the same purpose, but in this case water is saturated with oxygen in another way - they are injected under pressure.
  • Ion exchange filters. Used to purify water containing metal impurities - iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium, as well as nitrates. Water is passed through a mass of synthetic resin containing substances that attach metal ions to themselves, removing them from the liquid. There are devices that combine the functions of sorption and ion exchange filters. In devices of this type, the absorbing mass consists of a mixture of granules of an ion-substituting resin and a carbon absorbent.

Equipment using physical processes

  • Reverse osmosis. Almost all dissolved impurities - iron, magnesium and calcium salts, heavy metals, as well as nitrates and microorganisms are retained. The role of the barrier is performed by a membrane with micro-holes through which fluid is forced under pressure. These openings are so small that only water and oxygen molecules can pass through them. Removed impurities are removed from the membranes.
  • Ultraviolet filters. Disinfects water when irradiated with ultraviolet rays.
  • Installations for biological filtration. It reduces the concentration of iron, hydrogen sulfide and acid in water, due to the ability of some bacteria to absorb these substances. The filter involves the subsequent disinfection of ultraviolet light and the removal of waste products of microorganisms using the sorption system.

Tips and Warnings

  • To give the water a pleasant taste, it is worth using freezing and cleansing with activated charcoal and silicon.
  • The use of coal, like shungite, allows you to remove unpleasant odors.
  • To saturate the water devoid of useful trace elements (thawed, purified by reverse osmosis), 100 ml of mineral water should be added to 1 liter of purified water.
  • The safety of the water will provide shungite and silver.

Weak points of cleaning devices

  • Reverse osmosis plants show the best result in removing impurities, but due to the specificity of the purification method, membrane filters relieve not only of hazardous compounds, but also of useful trace elements. Constant consumption of water purified by this method can lead to a shortage of necessary substances in the body, therefore, it is necessary to use mineralization units together with such filters.
  • When using the device for ozonation, you need to remember that purified water is not stored for a long time. Ozone quickly destroys microorganisms, but does not have a duration of action. When ozonizing, organic compounds are destroyed, which creates a favorable environment for bacteria.
  • Exposure to ultraviolet light destroys the bacterial environment in water, but does not purify it from impurities of salts, metals, nitrates. It is advisable to combine UV filters with ozonating devices.
  • Sorption filters, accumulating organic matter, create an environment for intensive reproduction of bacteria. Therefore, when using them, an additional disinfection system is necessary.
  • Ion-exchange filters are applicable for the purification of water, the concentration of iron in which is not more than 5 milligrams per liter. If the iron content is higher, it will not provide an adequate level of purification.
  • During operation of the ion-exchange filter, large particles of oxidized iron eventually clog up the resin. A film forms on its surface, which is a breeding ground for bacteria. It is necessary to regularly wash the resin with a solution of salt.

Service life of replacement parts

  • The life of the resin for ion-exchange filter is 2-3 years.
  • The membrane for reverse osmosis filters becomes unusable after 18-36 months of use.
  • The carbon filter is designed for 6-9 months.

Used cleaning methods can neutralize the most harmful impurities. Подобрав оптимальный метод, учитывающий характер загрязнения, эргономичность и экономичность технологии, можно обеспечить свое жилище источником живой, полезной воды и сохранить здоровье.

Watch the video: Science - Separation Methods - Cleaning Water - English (October 2019).

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