The most important part of speech is words, we pronounce them, we write and read them, we add phrases and sentences out of them. They consist of letters and sounds that have become so firmly established in our life that we hardly notice them.
Consonants and sounds of the Russian alphabet
Consonant sounds and letters are characterized by the fact that during their pronouncement a certain obstacle arises in the path of air in the mouth. As a result, noise is necessarily present in the acoustic sound of the consonants. They got the name "consonants" because they almost always stand next to vowels or in the same word with them.
A total of 21 consonant letters in Russian:
Another characteristic feature of consonants is that they cannot be chanted. The pronunciation of hissing consonants can be stretched (for example: with, f, sh, u), but "singing" will fail.
As noted above, consonants in words are almost always side by side with vowels. However, there are a limited number of words that consist only of consonants. Along with prepositions to, with or particle b, these are some foreign names proper (Krch - district of Prague; Armenian name Mkrtchwhich in Russian is sometimes written with a vowel - for euphony), as well as interjections like brr or hush.
Classification of consonant letters and sounds in the Russian language is based on acoustic criteria.
Voiced and deaf consonants
Those consonants whose pronunciation consists only of noise are called deaf. In contrast, consonants formed by sound and noise are called voiced.
The letter stands alone th (and brief). Acoustically, it is referred to as voiced consonants, however, its isolated utterance is impossible. Letter th can be pronounced only with the preceding or following vowel sound, for example [yy], [iy], etc.
Paired and unpaired consonants
Most voiced consonants correspond to certain deaf. Such consonant letters are called paired. There are consonants that do not have a pair. Among them there are also deaf and ringing ones, and they are called unpaired.
|Paired ringing and deaf||Unpaired voiced||Unpaired deaf|
|b - n||l||x|
|v - f||m||c|
|g - to||n||h|
|d - t||R||u|
|w - w||th|
|h - with|
Soft and hard consonants
The pronunciation of consonants in words can be hard or soft. If the sound is pronounced softly, the tongue moves forward slightly, approaching the upper palate or touching it. When pronouncing hard sounds, the tongue is not moved forward (but the tongue may touch the upper palate due to the upward movement).
Most consonant letters form both hard and soft sounds, but there are some exceptions. In particular, the letters Well, c, sh always sound hard and letters th, h, u - soft.
In other cases, the hardness or softness of the consonants is determined by which letter follows them.
If the consonant is accompanied by letters but, about, at, uh, s, ъ - then it turns out a solid sound. The same, if the consonant is at the end of the word or after it comes another consonant.
If the consonant is accompanied by letters e, ё, and, Yu, I, s - then its sound will be soft.
Hissing and whistling consonants
Some of the consonants in the Russian language in pronunciation resemble hissing. These are sounds Well, sh, u, hwhich are called hissing consonants.
Another group of consonants at the exit from the oral cavity forms acoustic oscillations, resembling a whistle. These are sounds s, with, c - whistling.
Especially noticeable properties of hissing and whistling consonants with their long pronunciation.
One of the important features of these sounds is that it is with their pronunciation that most of the speech defects are associated. For this reason, work with hissing and whistling consonants should be given special attention when teaching children. It is important to note that the shortcomings of speech associated with these sounds may be amenable to speech therapy correction.
Vowel Russian letters and sounds
Unlike consonants sounds and letters, a characteristic feature of vowels is that the air, when they are pronounced, passes through the mouth cavity freely. As a result, vowel sounds can be not only easily stretched, but also chanted. Another distinctive feature is that they can be pronounced as loud as you like, to the full force of the voice.
By means of vowels and sounds, consonants are combined into syllables. In each syllable there is only one vowel. The number of other letters - consonants, hard and soft signs - can be different. Words may consist of one or several syllables: growth letter like a scrap, yard, picture.
Number of vowels in Russian - 10:
And the vowel sounds are only 6: [a], [and], [o], [y], [y], [e]. The corresponding vowels are monotonous. The remaining 4 vowels are e, ё, Yu, I - two-sounding, and separately pronounced as [ye], [yo], [yu], [ya]. At the same time, in words these letters mean one sound (examples: squirrel, ball, went, key).
As in the case of consonants, there are a number of Russian words consisting of vowel sounds only. These are pronouns - I, her; unions - and, but; prepositions - at, about; interjections - uh, ay.
Shock and unstressed vowels
In words, vowel sounds can be percussive and unstressed.
- If the vowel in the word is under the stress, it is read more clearly, with more accent and a little more drawl.
- In the absence of stress, vowels in words are read less clearly. Accordingly, the unstressed position is a weak position for them, and the position in the stressed syllable is a strong position.
As a rule, in traditional writing, stress is not indicated in words. If necessary, they are denoted by the "acute" sign - a small "/" stroke above the vowel letter.
The designation of sounds in the phonetic analysis of the word
Phonetic or sound analysis of the word serves to display and parse its correct pronunciation. Both words and individual letters can be phonetically denoted.
The designations of sounds, unlike letters, are enclosed in square brackets. A graphic record of the pronunciation of the word is called transcription.
The basic rules, according to which the sounds are used for phonetic analysis of a word, are as follows:
- The hardness of the consonants does not have any designation, but the softness is displayed by the apostrophe sign. For example, if [b] is a hard sound, then [b '] is soft.
- A long sound in the transcription is indicated by a colon, for example: cashbox - [cas: a].
- Not always, but often in the transcription of words emphasized. For example: wave - [Valna].
- A soft sign and a hard sign do not have sound pronunciation, therefore there is no display in phonetic analysis.
How to teach children to distinguish between hard and soft sounds
Sometimes children may have difficulty distinguishing between hard and soft consonants. In this case, there are some techniques that facilitate the assimilation of the topic.
First of all, you need to explain to the child that the concepts of hardness and softness are not related to consonant letters, but to their sounds. And that the same letter may sound both hard and soft. I will give an example: "b"- the words ram - white,"R"- work - belt,"l"- horse - swan.
Explaining letters-exceptions, for better memorization, it is recommended to write them like this:
- th, h, u
- Well, sh, c
It is necessary to make it clear to the child that the underlined letters seem to be “sitting on the pads” - the pads are soft and the letters are also soft.
In order for the child to remember well before which vowels the letter becomes hard or soft, you can use the following technique: first, with a serious facial expression, read a syllable with a firm consonant - and then, with a smile on your face, read another syllable, where this consonant is soft. Then do the same with other letters and syllables. For example: la - for, mu - mi, zo - zya, bo - by, ry - ryo etc. A soft pronunciation is well associated with a child with a smile, and a firm one - with seriousness and severity, which allows associatively remember the material.
Gradually, you need to improve skills, and do the same exercises with simple words, such as: Mama, dadbut - uncle, aunt etc. As you memorize, you should move from simple words to more complex ones. Explanations and exercises need to be alternated with tasks one by one: write the words and then ask which consonants are hard and which are soft.
Another exercise can be proposed: to make tablets with words in which soft consonants are written in one color and solid ones in another. For example:
There are many options, but it is desirable to choose among them those that are more like a child. This contributes to a better perception of the material, its memorization and practical assimilation.
Some interesting and useful information.
- Sounds and words can be formed without human intervention. A well-known example is the pronouncing of words by birds of the parrot family. As for the individual sounds, they can appear in inanimate nature - with the rustling of leaves, gusts of wind, splashing waves. This can not be said about the letters - after all, only a meaningful spelling can be recognized as a letter designation, and this is characteristic only of people.
- Despite the small number of words consisting only of vowels, one can make a sentence of them: "Eh, and me?"
- Almost all words of the Russian language containing the letter "f", have a foreign origin. Only with regard to rare words (for example: owl) is Russian origin supposed, but it has not been proven for sure.
- All words beginning with the letter "th", also foreign languages. For example: iodine, yogurt, iota, Yemen, Yokohama, Yorkshire, etc.
- Letterё"in words almost always bears the stress. Exceptions to this rule are very few - these are words of foreign origin (königsburg surfers), as well as complex words, which include the numerals of three or four - (twenty-three, four-double, three thousandth). Also noteworthy are the rare situations when there are two letters in one word "ё", one of which becomes a shock, and the other - unstressed (three star, four-wheeled, airplane lift, three-ruble).
- There are many words in Russian with unusual letter combinations. For example, words in which the same vowel is repeated three times in a row: snake eat, pet unification, long necked. Word with 7 consonants in a row: counter meeting (possibly, occasionalism). Words with three soft signs: seductiveness, diminution, multifunctionality, seductiveness etc. Word with two soft and one hard sign: courier. Monosyllabic word of 8 letters: in passing. There are many other interesting examples.
- Any letter has a certain repetition rate, the most used letters in Russian are: about, e, but, and, t, n, with, R. This phenomenon is used to recognize ciprograms.
Knowledge of letters and sounds, their spelling and pronunciation is the basis of language literacy. In turn, a good command of the spoken and written language is one of the indicators of a person’s knowledge, and the skills of reading and understanding the text are the basis for knowledge of other sciences. After all, the lion's share of information in the modern world is comprehended by reading or listening, and only a small part of it is through personal experience.
In addition, linguistic speech, which forms the second signaling system, as well as everything connected with it — auditory perception, reading, writing — is one of the main differences between humans and animals. It is difficult to overestimate the importance of phenomena based on language acquisition. This process continues almost all his life, but it begins with an acquaintance with letters, sounds and syllables in early childhood.