Everest is the highest peak of the world, the second name is Chomolungma. Its popularity among climbers is great, especially among those who are eager to conquer this height. Without a doubt, traveling to the peak of the mountain is a dangerous adventure, because quite a few people have lost their lives on the way to the goal. But the hero who managed to conquer Everest, can fully enjoy this unearthly beauty and a sense of freedom. There is something special in it that attracts and attracts people, even at the cost of their lives ...
Air temperature at the top and at the foot
The climate and temperature of Everest is harsh and unpredictable, and sometimes even extreme. The temperature values at the foot and at the top differ sharply from each other. At the foot, it is usually plus temperature, which decreases by 6.5 degrees with every thousand meters.
The temperature depends on the seasonality, but never above 0 degrees. The most favorable climatic conditions in the summer months of the year, the average July temperature is minus 19 degrees. In winter, the temperature decreases, so the average temperature in January-February is -36 degrees, and at night it can reach up to 55-60 degrees below zero.
In the winter and spring, westerly winds "walk", and in the winter - south-west winds, whose speed can reach 280 kilometers per hour. In the summer and autumn months monsoons blow from the Indian Ocean, with the arrival of which a large amount of precipitation falls.
A sharp change in temperature on Everest is not uncommon. Even in the most favorable period for conquest (from May to October), sudden storms and snowfall are also characteristic. But in each season there are 3-4 days of steady weather, they are called “windows”, which climbers use to conquer mountain peaks.
Every 10-12 meters atmospheric pressure decreases by 1 millimeter of mercury. A simple mathematical calculation of the estimated height at the top of Everest is about 23 millimeters of mercury, at a norm, like at the foot of a mountain, 760 millimeters. The actual atmospheric pressure at the top is considered to be 3 times lower than normal.
Flora and fauna
The vegetation and fauna of Everest are not very diverse. At the foot, you can find some varieties of low-growing shrubs, individual tufts of grass, some conifers, mosses and lichens. But with every kilometer up and this poor flora disappears. On the slopes of Chomolungma you can find shrubs called snow rhododendron. This is the only plant whose life is possible at an altitude of over 5,000 meters at constant sub-zero temperatures.
Among living creatures can be found Himalayan jumping spiders, some species of grasshoppers. Mountain ducks, alpine jackdaws and some other species of birds that can live at high altitude inhabit the top of the mountain.
INTERESTING! There is a legend about the phenomenon on the slopes of the famous snowman - Yeti. But so far only huge tracks were found in the snow, according to local residents belonging to this unique creature. But the fact of its existence has not yet been proved, although many scientists and climbers are looking for this miracle.
How and who conquered Everest
- Climber Edmund Hillary and Nepali sherpa Tenzing Norgay were the first to manage the feat and conquer the highest world peak of 8,848 meters. Since then, almost 65 years have passed (1953). And during this period of time, hundreds of thousands of brave people tried to conquer this mountain.
- The second ascent of Chomolungma was 3 years later in 1956 by a Swiss expedition group led by Ernst Reiss and Fritz Luxinger.
- In 1963 the first American expedition to Everest was organized, Jim Wittaker became the conqueror. The American was accompanied by the Sherpa Navang Gombu, who later climbed to the top in 1965 for the second time in the Indian expedition and became the first person fortunate enough to conquer the peak twice.
- In 1975, Japanese Junko Tabei became the first queen of Everest, among the beautiful half of humanity.
- In 1982, the first Soviet expedition took place, which reached the top of the world. It consisted of 25 people, the leaders of the group were Vladimir Balyberdin and Edward Myslovsky.
Since then, a lot of ascents on Everest have been made by mankind, including people of different generations and nationalities. At the end of 2017, the total number of people who reached a peak was 8306 people.
Useful information and interesting facts
- The highest peak of the world was named after the scientist George Everest, who for the first time managed to determine the location and height of the mountain range. The second name "Chomolungma" was given by the locals, which means "Mother Goddess of the Earth."
- The height of Everest increases by about 4 millimeters each year.
- The ascent takes about 2 months, taking into account the time for adaptation and acclimatization.
- In 2004, on the summit of Everest, a couple from Nepal became husband and wife.
- Climbing is an expensive pleasure, the price is at least 50-60 thousand dollars.
- Due to the large amount of rubbish left by climbers on the slopes, the Nepalese government obliges each expedition to collect at least 8 kg of rubbish or pay 4,000 dollars.
- The oldest conqueror of Everest is the 80-year-old Japanese Yuichiro Miura.
- The youngest is Jordan Romero, he was 13 years old.
- Statistics show that 10 deaths account for 1 death.
- The frozen bodies of climbers do not evacuate from the slopes of Everest. Moreover, the corpses of people serve as identification marks of a certain place or height.
Whatever the attractive place of Everest, there is a downside, sometimes scary and cruel. Every step with every hundred meters is given with great difficulty. And nobody is immune from mountain sickness and death from hypoxia, pulmonary edema or frostbite, even the most trained athletes. But nevertheless there are extremes who put life on the line in order to conquer Everest and, feeling euphoria, enjoy the beauty of the world from its highest mark.